This Essay considers when U.S. service members deployed to Afghanistan are obligated to report allegations of sexual assault by Afghan security forces (ASF) against Afghan nationals to the U.S. military. The answer requires applying a longstanding Department of Defense (DOD) policy for reporting law of war (LOW) violations and hinges on when sexual assault can be considered such a violation. Although recent attention on this topic has brought much-needed visibility to sexual assault in conflict zones, the overbroad assertions of the media and the military have unfortunately fostered more confusion than clarity. Specifically, the New York Times has incorrectly implied that U.S. service members are always required to report alleged ASF sexual assaults, while the U.S. military has wrongfully counterclaimed that the offenses “would be a matter of domestic Afghan criminal law. Readers may wonder why reporting would even be needed to ensure that higher levels of the U.S. military are aware of the alleged sexual assaults. One reason is because U.S. military units in Afghanistan are widely dispersed across twenty-five of Afghanistan’s thirty-four provinces.